Century Film Project

Celebrating the movies our ancestors loved

Tag: 1906

Ocean Studies (1906)

Alternate Title: Effets de mer

It’s odd to find this simple series of shots of the ocean amidst the movies Alice Guy put out in 1906 – it feels like a reversion to the simple experiments from the “Age of Attractions.” I do suspect that this was also a bit of an experiment, but from what we have, it’s hard to rate its success.

Ocean Studies

We see three images of the ocean breaking against rocks at the shore, edited together in sequence. The first is so close that it could almost be a river. The second is a slow pan back and forth along the coast – this gives us the clearest perspective of the location. And the final image appears to be a reversal of the first, again focusing on the rocks without the horizon visible. The movie includes no human figures or narrative of any kind.

I’m inclined to read this as an attempt at “visual poetry,” but it’s hard to say. For one thing, as it stands, we have the images, but there could have been more to this movie. Possibly Guy released it with narration, which would have been read aloud as it ran by an exhibitor. Or, possibly this wasn’t even intended for release – maybe she was testing a new camera or taking shots she intended to use later in some other way, but they were found in Gaumont’s cellars and included in this set. The title “Ocean Studies,” made me expect something scientific, but as soon as I saw it I realized they meant “study” as a painter would use the term: a study of the ocean. It’s worth noting that by this time Guy had brought on a new assistant, Louis Feuillade, who would write “manifestos” of film as art and try some interesting work along those lines as well, so it’s possible that he influenced this anomalous movie as well.

Director: Alice Guy

Camera: Unknown, possibly Alice Guy or Anatole Thiberville

Starring: Unknown

Run Time: 1 Min, 40 secs

You can watch it for free: here.

The Consequences of Feminism (1906)

Alternate Title: Les Résultats du féminisme

This role-reversal comedy from Alice Guy may surprise modern viewers with its perspective on gender. Even the title seems like something far more recent than 110 years ago, and yet it survives as a commentary from an earlier age.

Consequences of FeminismThe movie begins by showing a group of men in a small room together, all apparently working on sewing hats. We notice that the men have longer hair than is usual for the period, and some of them are wearing flowers in their hair. They move effeminately, with hands extended and graceful steps. A woman comes into the room, dressed more or less normally for the period. She apparently wants to buy a hat and one of the men gets a hatbox out for her, but while she is waiting, she checks out the men and pinches one of them on the cheek. The man selected to carry the hatbox gets up and smears cream on his face in front of the mirror, then delicately picks up the hatbox and minces out the door. The next scene shows him walking on the street (a set, unfortunately, not one of Guy’s shots of contemporary Paris) past a café. A woman is at an outdoor table and sees the man, and gets up and comes over to him, trying to force a kiss. Another woman, seeing him harassed in this manner, comes over and breaks it up, the offers her arm to escort the helpless man away. This woman leads the man to a park bench, convinces him to put down the hatbox and sit with her, and now she tries to take advantage of him. While he struggles, two other men walk by, look and see what is happening, and quickly run away from the scene.

Consequences of Feminism1Next, we see the man at home. A woman lounges in a chair reading a newspaper while he sits at a sewing machine and another man does the dusting. The woman and the other man leave, but the man from before seems to be waiting for something. He takes out a photograph and kisses it, then he answers the door and the woman from the previous scene comes in and kisses him. She leads him to the couch and gets on her knees. The man seems overcome with emotion, but insists on writing a note before going out. The next scene shows the two of them in a hotel room, the woman ardently trying to show her affection while the man seems to have second thoughts. She starts to take his clothes off eagerly, and he faints. She runs to get him some water.

Now, we cut to a bunch of women in a bar. Some of them are reading newspapers, others are gathered around a table. A woman comes in wearing pioneer-clothing and carrying a gun. She is greeted heartily by the other women, who pour her a drink and pound her on the back. Now a man comes in, carrying a laundry basket with linen, and tries to ask her a question. The other women grab the items out of the basket and throw them around the room, laughing at his distress. He flees the scene in terror. Another man comes in, leading two small children and goes to the woman sitting in the corner, she chases them out as well. Now the women close the bar door to prevent all these male intrusions on their domain. At last, we see the women from the hotel sitting at the outdoor café as various men with baby carriages stroll by. The men begin to congregate, comparing their children and chatting. Finally, the man from the hotel walks by with several children in tow. One of them runs over to the woman, and the man pleads with her for his honor. She rejects him and all the other men band together in support of their wronged comrade. When the man slaps the woman, all the men gather round and shame her for taking advantage of his weakness. Then they march into the bar en masse and drive the women out, taking over and drinking to their hearts’ content.

Consequences of Feminism2It’s very tempting to over-analyze this film, to read more into it than Guy likely intended, in light of modern politics and perspectives on the history of gender and sexuality. Let’s back off for a moment and recall that she was trying to make something that would entertain her audience, most of whom would be presumed to be male. She probably knew that most would read this as a vicious parody of feminism’s aspirations to put women in men’s place and vice versa. No doubt she intended that it would be read that way, and made the women strong and the men weak to suggest that this reversal was “unnatural” and comical. But, it’s hard to avoid realizing that what she is doing here is commenting on the inferior position women had to tolerate at the time. By making men the objects of sexual harassment and exploitation, she forces her male audience to see how unpleasant it is, and how few choices women have when confronted with it. Moreover, by showing the men at the end banding together for their rights, she has (inadvertently? Subversively? It’s hard to be sure) validated feminism as a tactic and suggested its necessity.

Girl Power!

Girl Power!

The other thing that stands out about this movie is all of the signals the men put out regarding sexuality, which a modern audience reads as their being “flaming” or openly gay. Gay men existed at this time, of course, but they were far less open, even in liberal France, and again it’s hard to know how much we are “reading backward” when we interpret their behavior in this manner. Obviously, Guy was making them as feminine as possible to show her future dystopia in which men and women have traded places. Did she hire female impersonators as actors? That would make the longer hair and obvious facility with feminine roles more logical. Certainly, there were cabarets by 1906 in which this sort of thing went on, but I don’t know whether Guy would have had access. It’s possible that she used wigs and directed “straight” male actors until she got what she wanted.

Whatever the case, this is a very unusual film for the period, and one of the few Guy made that really speaks to her being a woman in a largely male industry.

Director: Alice Guy

Camera: Unknown, possibly Alice Guy  or Anatole Thiberville

Starring: Unknown

Run Time: 7 Min

You can watch it for free: here.

The Truth Behind the Ape Man (1906)

Alternate Title: La vérité sur l’homme-singe

Another of Alice Guy’s bizarre late-period French comedies, this one doesn’t use a lot of trickery but does include some interesting inter-cutting and close-ups. Perhaps not as innovative or surprising as “The Drunken Mattress,” it’s still good fun.

Truth About the Ape Man Read the rest of this entry »

The Parrish Priest’s Christmas (1906)

Alternate Title: Le Noël de Monsieur le curé

This fluffy little Christmas story from Alice Guy probably exemplifies why some speak of early Gaumont as “moralist” (although the later Fantômas series argues against this!). It speaks of a simple faith that overcomes poverty and hardship.

Parrish Priests Christmas1We see a Priest at home; on his wall a calendar tells us it is Dec. 23. He opens a book and an insert shot lets us see that he is reading about Christmas and the Nativity. He is suddenly overcome with an inspiration and summons his housekeeper. He reminds her of the coming holiday, and they go through his current budget to see if there is money for a special display. His purse has only a few small coins, so he resolves to go out into the community and raise funds. His first stop is the home of some simple peasants. They turn out their pockets as well; they have no money, either. But, they are eager to contribute something and the wife gets a basket full of eggs. The Priest happily agrees, but then can’t figure out a way to carry the basket safely, in addition to his hat and cane, so the woman comes along with him. Now they stop at the shop of a wealthy merchant, and he and the Priest talk for a while. The merchant wants to sell the Priest a large statue of an infant, but the Priest asks if he has anything smaller. Looking disappointed, the merchant finds a smaller infant doll. The Priest gets out his meager coins and the merchant looks dubious. The Priest calls in the woman and she offers the basket of eggs. Now the merchant is dismissive – he won’t accept barter and he’s not interested in giving charity to the church. The Priest and the peasant woman leave. The next scene shows them setting up the nave of the church. They have put out a cradle in front of the statue of the Madonna and put straw in it to represent the manger, but there is no baby Jesus, the congregation will have to use their imaginations for that. When the Mass is performed, suddenly two angels appear on the altar, and one places a baby into the cradle. All of the congregation and the Priest show their thanks for this miracle.

Parrish Priests Christmas2Unlike the many American Christmas movies I reviewed last year, this is a thoroughly religious Christmas movie, tied to a specific faith and its rituals. This probably limited its appeal for foreign distribution, although it is a well-made and touching story. The moral of the story – that the poor people are willing to donate even though they have little to offer while the rich merchant is too stingy – would work well enough in American progressivist pictures, but many Protestants would object to the idolatry and symbolism of the end. Almost certainly, it would be rejected in the Baptist south. From a French point of view, however, it probably works, and this seems to confirm the surprising trend away from English translations in these movies at this time. Guy continues to improve her technique, as the use of the insert shot, the measured acting, and the careful pacing of this thoughtful movie all show. There are no Intertitles (at least, none that have survived in the print I saw), but the story is told in a way that allows the viewer to sort things out with minimal work. You don’t necessarily know at first what the Priest wants money for, but it works itself out logically by the time he’s at the merchant’s shop. This movie seems to be a good representative of the style Guy established as she became more confident and less imitative.

Guy's first insert?

Guy’s first insert?

Director: Alice Guy

Camera: Unknown, possibly Alice Guy or Anatole Thiberville

Starring: Unknown

Run Time: 5 Min, 30 secs

You can watch it for free: here.

The Drunken Mattress (1906)

Alternate Title: Le matelas épileptique

There’s something about the comedies Alice Guy was putting out at this period; they manage to be silly in an almost-surreal manner without being so bizarre as to be incomprehensible. As soon as I saw the title of this one, I knew I was in for an interesting ride.

Drunken MattressThis movie begins with a husband and wife on spring cleaning day. The wife notices a tear in the mattress and calls the concierge over, she looks at it and they discuss what to do. Finally, she has the maid take it away to be repaired. In the next scene, the maid is in a park, with the mattress set up flat on a table so she can work on it. She is preparing her needle and thread when she suddenly gets an inspiration. She goes into a local pub for a drink. During the whole time of the “preparing to repair” sequence, there is a man in the far background, approaching the camera slowly, occasionally stumbling, like a Zombie from “Night of the Living Dead.” After the maid leaves, the camera watches his approach, and he comes into closer view. He is a drunk, stumbling home after a long debauch. When he sees the mattress, he decides to climb in and get a few winks. He gets in via the tear, and pulls the mattress like a sheet over his head to block out the sun. The maid, now a little tipsy herself, comes back to her work and efficiently sews the mattress shut.

Drunken Mattress1The rest of the movie concerns the maid’s efforts to get the mattress back to its home. It’s much heavier now, and she keeps dropping it. It also occasionally attempts to evade her efforts to pick it up, or suddenly sits upright, or otherwise acts very unlike a mattress. At one point, she drops it off a pedestrian bridge into a street, and it gets run over by a car and caught in its wheels. At another, the woman and the mattress fall into a freshly-dug hole. It looks like it would be filthy, as well as having many new rips, by the time she gets it back (why did she take it so far away to repair it in the first place?). She does finally manage, however, and the couple, who have been waiting impatiently for her return (they’re already in their bedclothes when she finally arrives), pay her reluctantly and climb into bed. The mattress leaps up and they spring out of bed. The man grabs a chair, apparently planning to beat the mattress to death. The wife convinces him to throw it out the window instead. Of course, it clobbers the maid and the concierge, who finally rips the mattress open and frees the drunk. A fight breaks out, involving both of them, the maid, the couple who have run downstairs in their nightclothes, and a random policeman. Chaos reigns as the movie ends.

Drunken Mattress2I was half-expecting something along the lines of “Dream of a Rarebit Fiend.” This movie is less original and surreal than that, but actually a lot funnier, at least to me. Of course, for many of the stunt shots, there is no one in the mattress, and it is easy for Guy to edit between these and the shots where she needs someone to sit up or otherwise move within it. It seems to me she did a better job of that than with the hobo in a barrel in “A Story Well-Spun.” There are a more opportunities for cutaways here, and the pacing works better as well. At any moment, we know something can happen with that mattress, but it’s harder to predict just what it will be (I haven’t given away much above). It just keeps getting sillier. The whole premise is ridiculous, of course – the maid would notice a man in the mattress and the man would speak or give himself away, and probably could get out very easily – but it’s a great conceit for comedy, and reminds me of the ridiculous situations in “Monty Python.” This might be my favorite of the Alice Guy movies I’ve seen so far.

Director: Alice Guy

Camera: Unknown, possibly Alice Guy or Anatole Thiberville

Starring: Unknown

Run Time: 10 Min

You can watch it for free: here (no music) or here (with music).

A Story Well-Spun (1906)

Alternate Title: Une histoire roulante

This is a fun little comedy from Alice Guy that resembles a “chase film,” except that no one is chased here, just set into rapid, uncontrolled motion. Although limited in characterization, it shows a complexity of filmmaking technique, including camera set-ups and editing, equal to or better than most work at the time.

Story Well SpunA man dressed as a hobo is resting in the shade of a barrel on a field. Another man, dressed in less dirty working-class clothes, approaches him and speaks briefly. Then he walks away. The hobo seems to decide that climbing into the barrel will be a way to get some undisturbed rest. The other man returns, and seeing where the hobo is, rubs his hands with malicious glee. He gives the barrel a good push and off it goes, nearly running down an old man walking along the field. Then it races over some train tracks. Finally it stops on a bridge, tilted at an odd angle – until the train comes and knocks it off. The barrel rolls down a large hill, rolling right over a man who is sleeping face-down, and then knocks a woman off her bicycle, bending the rear wheel so that it no longer works. At the end, it rolls down a riverside walk and dumps into the drink. The man from the beginning runs up and helps the hobo get out. The hobo refuses further help and walks away unsteadily. Finally, he falls over and rolls down a hill…

Story Well Spun1For most of this movie, of course, no one is really inside the barrel, but the audience accepts that there is. We do see some fake legs sticking out as it makes its final roll to the river, but there’s a jump cut allowing the hobo to get out. One other jump-cut occurs to the get the barrel into position on the railroad bridge. The editing here is somewhat good, though, because things move along at a fast pace, although as usual there are moments of waiting for the barrel to arrive at the beginning of each shot. I was impressed by the first shot in particular – the barrel rolls a good long way down that field, staying in-frame (and more or less in focus) the whole way! Overall, this is a pretty typical comedy for the time, but it’s fun to watch.

Director: Alice Guy

Camera: Unknown, possibly Alice Guy or Anatole Thiberville

Starring: Unknown

Run Time: 2 Min

You can watch it for free: here.

The Cruel Mother (1906)

Alternate Title: La Marâtre

I found this short from Alice Guy to be confusing at first, then disturbing in its implications, and then I went back to uncertain. I believe it was intended as a kind of social commentary film, although exactly what that comment is meant to be is a little obscure.

Cruel MotherThe movie begins with a woman tidying up what appears to be a ramshackle hut. There is a child on the floor, and a man is present, and occasionally gives some assistance, giving the impression of a family unit. But the woman leaves the job half-done, then gathers up and leaves the man alone. He seems forlorn. The next scene takes place in the woman’s apartment, which has much nicer walls with wallpaper and is generally more orderly. She is ironing and the child is in a nearby crib. The man walks in, much more nicely dressed than he was in the previous scene, and gives the woman a gift, which she accepts gratefully. The man now proposes, and, after a moment of surprise, the woman agrees. He puts a ring on her finger.

Now we see the whole mixed family together. The man has a son, some years older than the woman’s small daughter, and the hovel is much tidier than before, but seems crowded with so many people living there. When the man goes out, the woman grabs the boy by the arm, and makes him do most of the housework. Later, when the father comes in, the boy runs to him, but the father scolds him and (I assume) tells him to listen to his new mother. Finally, the boy goes out and runs to a graveyard – clearly visiting the grave of his real mother, and clarifying the relationship a bit. The father goes to the police, concerned because his son has run away, and they quickly bring him the boy they found in a cemetery. The boy resists returning home and the police show the father why: his arms are covered in bruises. Now the father brings the boy home and yells at the woman, grabbing her by the arm and shaking her. The boy tries to calm things down.

The French Wikipedia claims that this movie is based on “Cousin Bette” by Balzac but I haven’t read it and the English plot summary is no help in figuring out the confusing parts of this story. Possibly French audiences of the day would have no trouble. So far as I can see, the solution to the abuse of the boy is to abuse the wife, ensuring that the cycle of abuse will continue, but it’s possible (and suggested by the French writeup) that the ending is meant to suggest the possibility of a healthy reconciliation. It’s also not clear to me why the “cruel mother” is cruel in the first place – she seems to treat her own daughter well, so she becomes a kind of “wicked stepmother” for no apparent reason. It didn’t help that I had to spend the first half of the movie figuring out each character’s relationship to the others. Possibly this movie was shown originally with narration or Intertitles which have been lost. At any rate, presented as it is, for me as a modern American with no context, it was one of the stranger things I’ve seen from Alice Guy, and even somewhat frightening at first.

Director: Alice Guy

Camera: Unknown, possibly Alice Guy or Anatole Thiberville

Starring: Unknown

Run Time: 6 Min, 30 secs

You can watch it for free: here (no music) or here (with music).

The Hierarchies of Love (1906)

Alternate Title: La Hiérachie dan L’amour

This very simple short from Alice Guy makes fun of military hierarchies and their social effects. Although it involves several different camera set-ups, the essential story is told chronologically, in long-shot, with minimal editing.

Hierarchies of LoveWe see a woman walking in a park with a basket. A soldier (poilu) sees her and greets her cordially. He offers to carry her basket. They stroll for a while until they meet an officer. The officer chides the soldier for being lax in his duties and returns the basket to the woman. The solider leaves, reluctantly, and then the officer offers his arm to the lady (though he does not carry the basket). They stroll until he stops to run behind a metal screen briefly. While he’s back there, another officer comes along and escort the woman to a bench. This new officer suddenly pretends not to be with her when a very elderly, obviously high-ranking officer walks up. The older officer sends the young one on some chore, and sits next to the lady, showing her his stripes and even daring a peck on the cheek before the end.

It’s a pretty simple joke, and it only works because the movie is so short. Still, it has some interesting aspects. As is often the case in French films of the time (especially those of Guy), the woman in this film is not what we think of as a striking beauty, but a slightly heavyset woman with ample hips and a fairly ordinary face (to the degree that we see her face in long-shot). The point doesn’t seem to be that she is exceptionally desirable, but that she happens to be available, and the military men are undiscriminating. Also, by my standards, it is actually a bit hard to distinguish the difference in rank by looking at the uniforms of these men. Even the lowest-ranking fellow at the beginning had epaulettes, the officers all carry swords, and none have really decorative uniforms, although they do clearly age, which suggests that the hierarchies of love may not really work in the woman’s favor. Finally, there’s the bit where the first officer stops to run behind that screen – I think he’s relieving himself into a gutter or something, but I’ve never seen an arrangement like this in a park. I hesitate to suggest it was common in Paris or Europe at the time, but presumably whatever is going on would have been understood by audiences then.

Director: Alice Guy

Camera: Unknown, possibly Alice Guy or Anatole Thiberville

Starring: Unknown

Run Time: 2 Min, 30 secs

You can watch it for free: here.

A Sticky Woman (1906)

Alternate Title: Une femme collante

This is a simple one-joke comedy from Alice Guy that takes place in a post office. It is low-budget and relatively primitive compared to the moro elaborate work we’ve seen from Guy this week, although it’s also a reminder of the bulk of content that any director would be cranking out at the time.

Sticky WomanThe camera is set at a long-shot and faces the counter, where there are three open stations, marked “Telegraphie,” “Affranchisement,” and “Chargement,” and customers are lined up at each one. A woman enters with her maid and approaches the “Affranchisement” booth. She buys some stamps and the pair approach a desk at the front of the shot. She begins to stick stamps onto a stack of envelopes she has prepared, and the maid obligingly sticks out her tongue so that the woman can dampen each stamp before affixing it. Now a man in a top hat with a large handlebar mustache comes in with his wife; they are arguing, and he settles it by giving her some money and sending her to the “Affranchisement” station. While she is there, he notices the woman and her maid, and becomes increasingly fascinated as the maid licks stamp after stamp. Eventually, all of the stamps are affixed, and the woman goes to the “Chargement” station. The man now approaches the maid and gives her a passionate kiss. The whole building goes into an uproar as this kiss drags out longer and longer – he cannot pull himself back because of all the glue. Finally, a clerk runs over with a pair of scissors and cuts the two apart – the maid now bears the man’s mustache.

There are definite gender and class implications to this little sketch – as in “What Demoralized the Barber Shop” we see a man who apparently loses control after seeing a usually intimate piece of female anatomy (the tongue), and as in “The Gay Shoe Clerk” we see that the woman has no ability to resist his advances. Today, we might see this as a justification for anonymous sexual assault. In this case she is also a servant, used to taking orders and presumably to providing bodily fluids (well, saliva) for her mistress’s needs. The reaction of all the workers and customers suggests how out-of-place such a public display of affection was, even in France. It’s interesting to note that this time there are no signs in English, though I suspect this was sold in English-speaking markets. Possibly they were working fast and didn’t have time for translations. The other thing that occurred to me is that with the rise of self-adhesive stamps (to say nothing of email and text-messaging), there will soon be a generation that has never licked a stamp. This movie certainly makes it look unhygienic.

Director: Alice Guy

Camera: Unknown, possibly Alice Guy or Anatole Thiberville

Starring: Unknown

Run Time: 2 Min, 20 secs

You can watch it for free: here (no music) or here (with music).

Madame’s Cravings (1906)

Alternate Title: Madame a des envies

This light gender-based comedy from Alice Guy has an unusual subject: the cravings women get while pregnant. This, and its surprise ending, make it a bit “racy” for early 1900s film, although of course nothing vulgar is really shown.

Madames CravingsThe film opens on a man in the park with his little daughter, a child of about four or five. She has a lollypop, which she contentedly sucks on while her father reads the paper. A large woman now approaches, with a small bearded man pushing a baby carriage in tow. When she turns to face the child, we see her bulging belly – she is very pregnant, almost ready to drop. She looks at the child and claps her hands together happily. At first, it seems that she is excited over the child’s happiness, but what she really wants is the lollypop. She grabs it and runs, and her husband quickly follows. The child starts screaming, but it takes a moment for her father to react and notice what has happened. Meanwhile, we cut to a close-up of the woman eating the lollypop, a look of rapture on her face. Then, we cut back to long-shot and the father rushes over and remonstrates with the thieving couple. The husband tries to offer him the lollypop back, but he doesn’t want it now that it’s been in the woman’s mouth. He takes out his frustration by hitting the little man, who wags his finger at his wife. They continue until they come across a man in a café drinking absinthe, and, although the husband tries to stop her, the woman steals it while the man isn’t looking. Again, we get a close-up on her rapturous face as she drinks. This time, they sneak away, leaving the empty glass, and the absinthe-drinker seems to assume he drank it all in a daze, and leaves his money for the waiter. Next, they find a homeless man eating a smoked herring. Again, the wife steals it and we see her enjoying it in close-up. This time, the husband pays the hobo for his trouble. Last, they come across a salesman with a tray of something for sale (I couldn’t make out what it was). The wife swipes his pipe and smokes it with gusto, until he takes it back. The couple walk a bit further on until they come to a random cabbage patch. The wife trips and falls in, and she pulls a baby out of one of the cabbages. Suddenly, her belly is gone, and presumably her troublesome cravings as well.

No! Think of the baby!

No! Think of the baby!

This is a very silly movie. Modern viewers will probably be shocked to see a pregnant woman smoking and drinking alcohol, but we need to remember that this was pretty common until quite recently, and no one really thought twice about it in my mother’s day (she never smoked, but I’d be surprised if she didn’t at least have some wine when I was in her belly). Anyway, the point here is to get humor out of the strange cravings that pregnant women have, but there’s also a typical humor in the small man being dominated by his larger wife. Guy was a single woman at the time this film was made, and so far as I know had no children, but at age 33 she had surely known some pregnant women in her time, although she was also playing to audience expectations, I’m sure. I loved the fact that she once again used the cabbage patch as her baby resolution – she was really committed to that narrative! So far as the movie’s technical aspects, it is actually one of the more sophisticated narratives I’ve seen from Guy. The use of the close-up to emphasize the emotional state of the woman is surprising – I can’t recall another movie by her that does this, or even if she’s used more than a rare close-up at all. This is also a rare movie in that it uses Intertitles to explain some actions. In “The Birth, the Life, and the Death of Christ” we got Intertitles that set up each scene, but even that was unusual for Guy. Here, we actually see some that interrupt the action to explain it. The editing structure is less surprising, with each shot chronologically aligned with the next, and characters moving from one set to another as exits and entrances.

Director: Alice Guy

Camera: Unknown, possibly Alice Guy or Anatole Thiberville

Starring: Unknown

Run Time: 4 Min, 20 secs

You can watch it for free: here.